During the oral stage one of the child's pleasures is sucking. Too much or too little gratification can result in an oral fixation or oral personality. This type of personality may have a stronger tendency to smoke, drink alcohol, over eat, or bite his or her nails. Also, these individuals may become excessively dependent on others, deceitful, and constant followers.
Anal stage one to three years The anus is the focus of pleasurable sensations in the baby's body. The most important activity is toilet training to eliminate feces. The child has to learn to control anal stimulation, through pressure from society and mainly parents. Sigmund Freud was born in in Moravia, which was then part of the Austrian Empire and is now in the Czech Republic. He spent most of his life in Vienna, from where he fled, in , when the Nazis invaded.
Neither Freud being Jewish or his theories were very popular with the Nazis and he escaped to London where he died in He had wanted to be a research scientist but anti-Semitism forced him to choose a medical career instead and he worked in Vienna as a doctor, specialising in neurological disorders disorders of the nervous system.
He constantly revised and modified his theories right up until his death but much of his psychoanalytic theory was produced between and Freud originally attempted to explain the workings of the mind in terms of physiology and neurology So he began to search for psychological explanations of these symptoms and ways of treating them.
In he spent a year in Paris learning hypnosis from the neurologist Charcot; he then started using hypnosis with his patients in Vienna. However, he found its effects to be only temporary at best and it did not usually get to the root of the problem; nor was everybody capable of being hypnotised. Meanwhile Breuer, another Viennese doctor, was developing another method of therapy which he called the cathartic method, where patients would talk out their problems.
Freud adopted Breuer's method and called it free association which became one of the three fundamental tools of psychoanalysis. Freud began his self-analysis during the s and in published The Interpretation of Dreams, in which he outlined his theory of the mind, followed by The Psychopathology of Everyday Life , A Case of Hysteria and Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality Two of Freud's closest colleagues, Carl Jung and Alfred Adler, helped him form the psychoanalytic movement and the first International Psychoanalytic Congress was held in Salzburg in Freud compared the human personality to an iceberg.
The small part that shows above the surface of the water represents conscious experience ; the much larger mass below the water level represents the unconscious - a storehouse of impulses, passions, and inaccessible memories that affect our thoughts and behaviour. It is this portion of the mind that Freud sought to explore with the use of free association.
The largest part, however, being the un-conscious. The unconscious includes things that are not easily available to awareness, including out drives or instincts and things that we cannot bear to look at, such as memories and emotions associated with trauma.
The id, the ego and the superego are another well-known theory that plays off of the conscious and un-conscious mind. Freudian psychology begins with a world full of objects. Among them is a very special object, the organism. An extremely important part of the organism is the nervous system. The id, or the nervous system, translates the needs of the organism into motivational forces, or otherwise called the primary process.
An example, a screaming newborn does not realize that it needs food; it only understands that it needs something now. This is called the secondary process. The ego then struggles to keep the id, or the organism, happy. The ego keeps record of the obstacles, aids, rewards and punishments, and from there forms the superego.
This theory is usually not complete until the age of seven, if ever. There are two aspects of the superego: The conscious is an internalization of punishments and warnings. The ego ideal derives from rewards and positive models presented to the child. The conscious and the superego communicate their requirements to the ego with feelings like pride, shame, and guilt.
The id, ego and superego lead to the fact that, as if acquired, that a new set of needs and wishes are of social, not biological, at this time. Anxiety sits at the center of powerful forces: When conflicting demands are made upon the ego, the feeling is called anxiety. It serves as a signal to the ego that its survival as a whole is in jeopardy. There are three different types of anxiety: Realistic anxiety is considered fear.
Moral anxiety is a feeling that comes from the outer world, although could be considered shame, guilt and the fear of punishment. Neurotic anxiety is the fear of being overwhelmed by the impulses of the id. This is the anxiety that intrigued Freud the most. The Oedipal crisis is named after the ancient Greek story of King Oedipus, who inadvertently killed his father and married his mother.
The theory works in this manner: We want her affection, her caresses and her in a broadly sexual way.
Sigmund Freud, a physiologist, medical doctor, psychologist and father of psychoanalysis, is generally recognized as one of the most influential and.
Read this Philosophy Essay and over 88, other research documents. Sigmund Freud. Sigmund Freud's major theory is the psychoanalytic theory. The psychoanalytic theory is a grand theory of human development that holds /5(1).
- Sigmund Freud Sigmund Freud was the first major social scientist to propose a unified theory to understand and explain human behavior. No theory that has followed has been more complete, more complex, or more controversial. Sigmund Freud – Essay Sample Abstract Sigmund Freud developed the theory of personality development, a philosophy of human nature and a method of psychotherapy which focuses on ones unconscious and those elements that motivate behavior.
Sigmund Freud Papers Manuscript Division 2,; Sigmund Freud Papers: General Correspondence, to ; Sigmund Freud Papers: Interviews and Recollections, to ; Sigmund Freud Papers: Oversize, to ; Sigmund Freud Papers: Family Papers, to ; Sigmund Freud Papers: . The Life of Sigmund Freud Schlomo Sigusmund Freud (Sigmund Freud) was born on May 6, in a small village in Freiberg, Moravia, which is now part of the Czech Republic. He was born into a Jewish merchant family, and moved to Vienna when.